Modules
Title of the module: 

Intentional Rule-Breaking and Fair-Play in Sports  

Module objective(s): 

The objective of the module is to introduce the notions of fair-play, sportsmanship, fairness, integrity and rules in a way to strengthen the understanding of fair-play in sports and all the dimensions that it encompasses.

Other objectives include: being able to recognize different kinds of behaviour in sport games and to relate this recognition with the notions of fair-play and (un)intentional rule-breaking in sport; gain an ability to differentiate between unfair (wrong) and fair (right or good) behaviour in sports; to gain an understanding the negative impact of unfair practices (cheating, gaining unfair advantage, misuse of the rules, etc.), being able to reflect and understand the difference between intentional and unintentional rule breaking in sports, gaining awareness about the importance of rules in sports and good sportsmanship, gaining awareness of why we need fairness and good sportsmanship despite (or in addition to) rules in sports and also to relate aspects of fair play to other issues in the ethics of sports.  

Key learning outcomes/learning challenges/learning problems  Learning outcome 1: to know and understand the difference between fail-play and foul-play

At the 1964 Innsbruck Olympic Winter Games in two-man bobsleigh final competition Eugenio Monti, Italian competitor ran an excellent time that was going to be very hard to beat. Leader of the British team, Tony Nash was among the favourites and could have well beaten that time, but just before the race, a particular part if his sledge was broken. After finding this out Monti quickly detached that part from his own sledge and without hesitation ran to give it to Nash so that he could compete. Nash fixed the sledge, made an excellent run and went on to win the gold medal. Monti later simply commented “Nash didn't win because I gave him the bolt. He won because he had the fastest run.” For these acts of fair-play and sportsmanship, he was awarded the Pierre de Coubertin medal - Fair Play Trophy.  

Eugenio Monti

One of the simplest definitions of fair-play and good sportsmanship (or sport spirit) is that it encompasses following the rules of the game and competition, showing respect for others (other players, competitors, referees, officials, spectators, etc.) and for oneself, building team spirit and cooperation, being courteous and gracious in victory and in defeat and, lastly, having fun and enjoying sports (UNESCO). Fair-play is thus a very broad concept and is highly interconnected with the general values in/of sports such as fairness, respect, teambuilding, equality, discipline, inclusion, and perseverance.

In order for students to build awareness about the importance of fair-play, it is important not only to present them with the notion of fair-play in sports, or offer them examples of fair-play but to include their experience, which means that teachers must utilize experiential and active learning. This will also enable that students then transfer fair-play, fairness and other values in sports from the classroom or gym, to school life in general and into their communities and society in general.

One way that physical education teachers can stimulate the learning process and engage students from experience is to devise a sports game (or a variation of the existing game), for which the rules are unfair, or the roles of the players are such that they are in opposition to fair-play, or the implementation is unfair (see such examples of two such games in the worksheets attached to this module).

After engaging in such sports activities and experiencing the unfairness it is best to engage students in discussion while the experience is still close to their mind. Here we can open several interesting questions (e.g. How was it playing a sports game that is fundamentally unfair? How was it if you won due to this unfairness? Is winning the only goal in sports? How was it if you lose? What are the dynamics that occur in an unfair game, i.e. how does them the team function as a team? What is the best way to prevent unfair-play and how to sanction the cheaters? What is the difference between intentional in unintentional rule breaking? How should we penalize those that break the rules? Are referees above rules? Is it possible to always and fully play by the rules? Is basic fairness and fair-play important or can everything be ordered by the rules? Is there a sport where fair-play is not important at all?)

Also, including into the discussion cases from professional sport is also a viable option, but be careful that you do not just enter into a divisive discussion about which teams or players to favour etc. Make sure that you always refer to their concrete experience and to their concrete lives and engage them in discussion haw they can make the value of fair-play part of their everyday life. Teachers of sports education can coordinate their efforts with teachers of other subjects as well to join it or share the learning activity.

Another idea is to include fair-play recognition award or similar mechanism into sports education at your school so that it becomes an integral part of the school ethos and extent in also to other domains of school life beyond sports education.  


* learning outcome 2: to know and understand the importance of fair judgment in sports (players, referees) in relation to rules and in the context of winning/losing (what does it mean “to play by the (same) rules”)


Fair-play includes not only the conduct of the competitors in sports but also extends to referees, which are the ones that usually implement the rules. This opens up a good opportunity for learning and engaging students in activities.

Again, one of the best ways way to stimulate the learning process is for students to experience themselves the role of the referees. One learning activity that you can devise is to let the students to take the role of the referees in a different sports game and then let the participant in the game evaluate them and provide feedback (e.g. Did they perceive the referee as fair or competent? What decision would they change? etc.) The roles should then be switched.

Another variation of the same activity goes a step further. Teachers can divide students into groups and ask them to devise new rules for existing sports games. They can set their own aim in doing so (e.g. making the game more simple or fairer, making the job of the referees less demanding, increasing the role of the referees, etc.). In the next step, they should play out these games and try them out. This step should always be followed with a short reflection on how did thing go (for players, for referees, for spectators).

To take it even a step further teachers can incentivize students to devise the rules for a new sport game. Again, you should give students the freedom to work as they wish and set goals for themselves. In this way, we combine ethics and ethical education with creative thinking. In the next steps provide students with the opportunity to play these sports games that they have invented. In intermediate reflection and discussion could be focused on questions like was it easy to think of an entirely new sport game? Did things go as planned when you played it? Was it easy to understand and follow rules? Then they should have the time to make changes and improve their ideas for the games and shape them into their final form. They should also name their games and write down the rules and aims of the play in a clear matter so that these descriptions can be used also by others. Teachers should then include these games into sports education when possible and in this way recognize and give credit to students.

Possible additional learning outcomes  Some additional learning outcome of the module will be that students can state the role and the importance of rules in sports, they will be able to point to examples of foul-play sports behaviours (also form the history of sports) and the ones that are not in line with fair-play, they will gain knowledge and understanding of key values of competitive sports and how to be a “good and fair” competitor.
How to learn and work with this module –specific instructions that teachers and students may require and which relate to the whole module, including specific references to the cross-curricular approach: 

The topics of fair-play (and fairness in general) and the importance of rules can be addressed within a number of other school subject and also interconnect them tightly between each other.

As part of lessons in history, teachers can provide examples of fair-play in sports from history, situate them into a wider historical context and discuss them with students. This could also be a platform for discussion on questions like: Did the concept of fair-play change during history? Are there some special characteristics of fair play as related to modern professional sports? Can fair-play be used in some other social and historical phenomena or is it related only to sports? Is chivalry related to fair-play? Are there examples from sports that actions of sportsmen and sportswomen affected wider society and social justice (e.g. in overcoming racism and similar phenomena)? Who are the proper role-models from sports?

As part of the sociology or social sciences, teachers can address the issue of fair-play in relation to fairness in different social contexts, and also interrelate them with other topics from the ethics of sports such as gender equality, transgender competitions in professional sports, sport and social justice, etc. Another topic that can be addressed in the classroom is the problem of rules and regulations? Which human activities are regulated by rules and which kinds of rules we know (laws, social rules, etiquette, moral rules)? Who interprets the rules? Is fair-play applicable to these rules also? Can everything be resolved with rules and regulations, or do we also have to have personal virtues and be fair in order for such social systems to function? etc.

As part of philosophy (or ethics) teachers can address the topics of interrelation between fair-play and justice? What is just and what is just? Are sports competitions just or only fair? Why (or should) winners receive more than losers? Can any competition be just? What did philosophers like Plato and Aristotle think about justice? Are their theories also applicable to modern society or even modern sports? Can we use sports to discuss justice in general? Teachers can also extend these discussion activities into action, e.g. by using sport as a vehicle for social justice and change schools and communities for the better.  

Key educational content / subject areas associated with the modules: 

• justice, fairness and fair play/foul play

• ethical dilemmas in sports connected to fairness

• principles and rules: types of rules and conduct in accordance with rules

• judgment, decision-making and authority

• cheating

• role models in sports

• sanctioning of unethical behaviour in sports 

Further details of the key educational content that will be covered and that contribute to the delivery of the modules, including  
(i) Brief reference to the most effective methods or modes of learning: 

• experiential learning: learning through action/practice by doing

• Socratic dialogue and discussion groups

• using moral dilemmas, stories and storytelling form the history of sports

• role-playing and active learning 

(ii) Brief reference to the modes of assessing secondary school students (in relation to the learning outcomes): 

Informal and individualized assessment methods such as:

• anecdotal record,

• rating scales for behaviour,

• event sampling,

• self-reflection,

• sports diary,

• probing in discussion.  

(iii) Bibliography/resources: 

Books/papers:

• Morgan, William. 2017. Ethics in Sport, 3rd Edition. Champaign, IL: Human Kinetics.

• Simon, Robert L., Torres, Cesar R. and Hager, Peter F. 2014. Fair Play: The Ethics of Sport 4th Edition. New York: Routledge.

• Simon, Robert L. 2016. The Ethics of Sports. What Everybody Needs to Know. New York: Oxford University Press.

• Renson, Ronald. 2009. Fair Play: Its Origins and Meanings in Sport and Society. Kinesiology 41, https://hrcak.srce.hr/file/60493

 

Videos/web links:

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=onA3-s0JVzw

http://www.fairplayinternational.org/history-of-fair-play-

https://www.nbcsports.com/washington/fairplay

http://www.bbc.co.uk/ethics/sport/fair/fairplay.shtml

http://www.ellismethod.net/files/Tips/March12.html

http://www.unesco.org/new/en/social-and-human-sciences/themes/anti-doping/youth-space/play-fair/

https://youthcivilrights.org/portfolio_page/sports-for-social-justice/

Title of the module: 

Virtues and Flaws in Sport 

Module objective(s):  Students get to know and understand that there can be “too little” or “too much” of any kind of ability, characteristics, or tendency in sport and that this affects our understanding of virtues and flaws. 
Key learning outcomes/learning challenges/learning problems: including developed syllabus implementation guide for the outcomes  

Learning outcome 1: Students know and understand the definitions of the terms ambition, team spirit, strategy or tactics and similar, and their roles in sports. They are also able to connect these with virtues or flaws, depending on specific situations.


Proposed activity: The Fishermen´s Game

The Fishermen´s Game or Dilemma as inspired by Garrett Hardin´s economic theory “The Tragedy of the Commons”, and its goal is to educate players to cooperate and maximize the social gains although their incentive for personal gains is higher. When given access to a common resource, humans tend to overexploit it, and could by all means do the same in the game; in the Fishermen´s Dilemma, players need to learn to govern the commons while using partial information, without an external “punisher” (like a government or police) that forces them to cooperate, in order to avoid the potential “tragedy”. As players exploit the commons, the augmented environment is going to change its settings, and the groups start to realize that they are doing something wrong. However, players can also learn how to balance the game, and fish just enough, and move to a higher state of game.

At the beginning there are 90 tonnes of fish in the shared lake. The game is played in several rounds. For each round every group has to decide how many percent of the fish they want to catch. They can take any amount between 0 and 15 %. After each round the catch of all groups is substracted. Then the game master announces the tonnage of fish left in the lake including the rate of regeneration. As the aim of the game is to win by catching the highest amount of fish the lake is normally empty after about 4 to 6 rounds. Then there is a conference of the fishermen led by the United Nations who offer to replentish the fish if the groups find a compromise to install rules for fishing. The different groups receive various role cards and accordingly have different aims at the conference. If the groups find a compromise a new game with the agreed rules is started. As the aim is still to win the question is whether the groups stick to the rules or not.

Of course, any kind of activity providing a dilemma situation can be used as an activity, as it is important to focus students´ attention on the necessity of cooperation and developing strategies in order to reach a common aim, which is in the best interest of all participants.

With the help of different games and activities, like The Fishermen´s Game, the students learn about the results and effects of “winning at any cost” and are able to transfer them to several and diverse sports. They moreover learn about the importance of rules and in how far the change of these rules can in influence – in a positive or negative way – the course as well as the objective of various sports. The Fishermen´s Game is especially well-suited to show students the negative consequences if one´s aim is unconditional victory without caring about consequences, and thereby to discuss, challenge and re-evaluate different strategies. By dealing with and taking part in various role plays adapted to a variety of situations, students experience on the one hand the positive sides of fair play (like for example team spirit) and on the other hand possible negative effects of fair play (like for example losing a game). By being allotted specific tasks the students are made aware of various terms like team spirit or tactical foul. Moreover, these terms can be used to expound the problems of multitudes of sports. In all activities and dealings with different aspects, special emphasis is placed on an approach which is based on terms of being student-centred and related to practice.

Activities like The Fishermen´s Game are meant as a starting point for students to focus on important issues which the games they develop afterwards illustrate and focus.

Fishermen´s Game

GAME ROLECARDS

Role: Insight – Boat with the highest income so far Up to now in the game you decided on the highest fishing quota and thus earned the highest amount of money. But by now you have realized that the amount of fish available in the future depends on your behaviour in the present. Therefore, you want to be cooperative for the rest of the game and only catch as many fish so as not to endanger the fish stock in the lake.

Role: Trust – Boat with the second-highest income In your opinion all crews have realized the problem and will in future restrain their fishing quotas. You are sure the income of the crews will then balance somehow. Because of this, no special regulations are necessary. Above all you are against specified fishing quotas and even more against punishments, i.e. fines, if they are violated.

Role: Control/Punishment – Boat with the medium income During different phases of the game you behaved in different ways: sometimes cooperative, sometimes increasing your fishing quota. In order to stop such a behaviour of the other groups in the future, you want to enforce specified fishing quotas and punishments, i.e. fines for the involved crews, in case of violations at the next fishing conference.

Role: Justice – Boat with the second-lowest income Up to now you have earned the second-lowest amount of money of all crews. Therefore, it is your aim to enforce at the next fishing conference that in the next fishing season the fishing quotas will be divided in such a way that the entire income will be the same for all crews at the end of the season.

Role: Knowledge – Boat with the lowest income Up to now in the game you have been especially cooperative. Very soon you realized that high fishing quotas have a negative effect on the fish stock in the lake. As a reward, you are the only group to receive the growth chart for the fish stock. It is your task to use it in order to determine the ideal fishing quotas and at the fishing conference to convince the other groups to keep to these quotas in the future.


Learning outcome 2:

Students autonomously develop practical lesson ideas, for example for ambition, i.e. excess or lack thereof, games with different handicaps, good/bad team spirit due to team allocations in order to exemplify different aspects of these terms.

Students autonomously develop practical lesson ideas, for example for ambition, i.e. excess or lack thereof, games with different handicaps, good/bad team spirit due to team allocations in order to exemplify different aspects of these terms.

Activity:

Bench Game (see also activity worksheet at the end) In this game two teams play against each other illustrating the importance of team spirit. In each group there are 7-8 students standing on two benches. The aim of the game is for each of the players of the teams to move from the back to the front of the bench. While one group is allowed to cooperate and help each other, for example by ducking down or assisting team partners by holding on to them, the other team is forbidden to help team members in any way.

In a second step these rules or sports are tested by actually giving classes to other students and finally they are evaluated.

On the one hand rules of already existing games are modified by for example giving advantages to one team or player or including certain aspects in order to facilitate or even render possible sports for mixed groups, i. e. men and women in mixed teams, thus allowing a suitable distribution of skills. On the other hand, new sports following their own rules are developed, partially based on already existing games but also including new aspects and focal points, thus experimenting with aspects like fair play, gender equality and so on.


Learning outcome 3:

Students are able to reflect on and develop “good” possible courses of action based on various situations and conditions, thereby developing problem solving strategies and discarding unhelpful ideas.

During a prolonged phase of practical testing of their independently developed ideas students record their outcomes and modify their rules where appropriate. Based on their results they form new insights and classify those by developing a situation-based conclusion. Aims of these tasks are for the students to recognize good or fair actions and based on these insights to develop appropriate action strategies on their own.

Moreover, the experiences students made while developing their ideas are also to be used in a cross-curricular context, i. e. in other subjects like Ethics, Politics or Biology.

Within the context of virtues and flaws, especially the ideal of team spirit, ambition is one aspect which more or less touches all issues. Accordingly, this aspect can be dealt with and further developed in Ethics lessons following the practical PE lessons. In the follow-up Ethics lesson, a connection to Aristotle´s maxim of “The Golden Middle” is used as an introduction. Accordingly, students are given several characteristics (always groups of three which depict too much – too little – “golden middle”/virtue) mixed up and have to decide in groups which of them they would put together in groups of three, giving reasons for their choices. Having focused students´ attention on the importance of finding a balance, in a next consolidating step using the “Four Corners Game” or “Heads and Tails” students work on quotes dealing with different aspects concerning team spirit, thus developing and broadening their given concepts.   

Possible additional learning outcomes  Students develop strategies for autonomous problem solving, the ability to reflect on various aspects of a given situation or problem by cooperating in groups and teams. The superordinate objective of above-mentioned items is to enable students to deal with and solve problems on their own. Moreover, students can, based on the actual implementation of their rules or new sports with the help of their execution with different school classes, followed by a phase of reflection deliberate, in how far theoretically developed ideas can be put into actual practice. This acquired ability to reflect and autonomously develop solutions is to be supported and enhanced by the students´ working in groups and teams. 
How to learn and work with this module –specific instructions that teachers and students may require and which relate to the whole module, including specific references to the cross-curricular approach:

Students get to know PBL, i.e. pupil-based learning, which means ideas for lessons are provided as well as executed by students, and various other methods and discuss their potential applications. Moreover, they identify and get to know possible cross-curricular and interdisciplinary opportunities, like for example the topics ambition/doping in Biology, Ethics and Physical Education or resilience in Physical Education, Politics/Social Studies and Ethics.

The students get to know different methodical ways of recognizing and solving problems. Problem-oriented learning is the central basic approach, but students also get to know other methods like Focus Group, Fishbowl, Discussion and Debates. The students learn to use suitable methods and modify the according to the relevant situations.

Students recognize possibilities and opportunities of cross-curricular approaches. Subjects like Biology, Ethics and Physical Education for example are especially well-suited for dealing with the topic ambition.

One point of contact concerning the aspect of excessive ambition can be the problem of doping. Concerning this topic Biology lessons can be used to demonstrate in which way the different doping substances work as well as their effects on the body. The performance-enhancing effects of doping substances and moreover their resulting side effects and dangers are illustrated. In this context the issue of the new possibilities of genetic doping can also be broached and accordingly be connected to the ethical and moral dimension of the topic, for example dealing with this issue in Ethics lessons.

Another possible topic is resilience. This current topic is connoted in a prevailingly very positive way in sports as well as economics. However, negative aspects of resilience can be dealt with in Politics or Social Studies lessons.  

Key educational content / subject areas associated with the modules: 

• Virtue

• Flaw

• Character

• Situation

• Strategy

• Cooperation

• Competition  

Further details of the key educational content that will be covered and that contribute to the delivery of the modules, including  
(i) Brief reference to the most effective methods or modes of learning: 

• Student-centred development/learning

• Problem-oriented learning

• Practice-oriented education/lessons

• Methodical skills/competences

• Social competences

Problem-oriented learning: Problems stimulate learning, problems might even be among the most important simulants concerning the extension of one´s own abilities and proficiency. Accordingly, the philosopher Karl Popper says, “All life is problem solving.” (Popper 1994), and the education researcher Jürgen Baumert defines “problem-solving is aim-oriented thinking and acting in situations, which cannot be mastered because of a lack of routines. The problem solver has a more or less well-defined aim but does not know instantaneously how it might be reached. The incongruency of aims and available means is constitutive for a problem. The understanding of the problematic situation and its step-by-step change based on planning and reasoning thinking are constitutive for the process of problem solving.” (Baumert et al. 2003, p. 3)

Student-centred development/learning: Student-centred education and learning are important for lessons because they effect a positive attitude of pupils towards school, learning as well as the teacher. Another additional very decisive, enhancing and enormously positive effect of student-centred learning is that the students´ self-confidence and achievement and learning motivation are crucially enhanced. (Helmke, 2009, p. 231) Student-centred education/learning means to take students seriously as persons and individuals as well as esteemed. Concerning this aspect, the relationship between students and teachers is a central feature. Student-centred education is characterized by teachers not only feeling responsible for questions dealing with their own subjects but moreover being available to students concerning areas above and beyond their subjects (Stangl, 2018)

Practice-oriented education/lessons: Practice-oriented education is conceived as holistic and students activating lessons, in which the results and products of lessons agreed on by students and teachers lead the organization of the process of the lessons, which means putting the mental and manual work of the students into a well-balanced relation to each other (Hilbert Meyer, 1987).

Methodical skills/competences: Methodical skills or competences comprise the ability and proficiency necessary in order to acquire and exploit expert knowledge. On another additional level they are needed to generally enable students to solve problems in an aim-oriented way. Methodical competences are necessary for the successful application of subject-based expertise. Therefore, they constitute a competence which makes competences accessible.

Social competences: Social competences are a complex of abilities providing a basis for taking over control in situations of communication and interaction according to the needs of everyone involved and to act efficiently. Efficient acting is considered to be when because of it on the one hand positive and desirable consequences are maximized and on the other hand negative and undesirable consequences are minimized. Thereby social competences might be differentiated by depicting them as a homogeneous construct or as a compendium of several socially relevant behavioural pattern.  

(ii) Brief reference to the modes of assessing secondary school students (in relation to the learning outcomes):  In order to “test” if the learning outcomes have been achieved, different options or methods are possible. One way of assessment is achieved by a form of physical positioning. For this a line is drawn on the ground. One end of this line depicts “Agree 100%”, the opposite end “Disagree 100%). The teacher gives different statements, quotes etc. dealing with the given topic and asks students to position themselves according to their own agreement or disagreement. In the next step, students have to give reasons for their positionings. In order to be able to discern a learning development, this method should be used before having dealt with the topics and then again afterwards, so that a change of attitudes can be realized and also be used for further deeper- thinking skills.  
(iii) Bibliography/resources: 

Popper, Alles Leben ist Problemlösen: Über Erkenntnis, Geschichte und Politik, 1994.

Baumert, Erfassung fächerübergreifender Problemlösungskompetenzen in PISA, in: OECD PISA Deutschland 2003.

Helmke et al, Schüler als Experten von Unterricht in Lernende Schule 46/47, 2009.

Stangl, 2018, www.stangl-taller.at/Arbeitsblätter/Publikationen/Motivation.sstml, s. 98-105

Hilbert Meyer, Unterrichts Methoden, 2 Bände, 1987.  

Title of the module: 

Gender Equality in Sports 

Module objective(s):  The curriculum "The ethics in sport" in its 3rd module should raise awareness of the role of women in sport. Understand the existence of gender inequality in sports and the need to achieve equality. Explain basic theoretical concepts important for understanding the interpersonal theme (gender, equality, stereotypes, prejudice, discrimination).  
Key learning outcomes/learning challenges/learning problems: 

Learning outcome 1: Understanding key terms in gender equality

• Students will understand and recognize the difference between terms sex and gender.

• Students will understand the difference between stereotypes and prejudices.

• Students will notice different kind of discrimination and inequality in sports, such as inequality of chances to practice sports, media representation, unequal payment, prejudice, stereotypes.

Implementation idea/activity/example:

Fishbowl exercises
Fishbowls method of discussion is useful for ventilating ethical-sport topics or sharing ideas or information from a variety of perspectives of sport topics. Students will discuss through the fishbowl method about their attitudes regarding the meaning of the word sex and gender. Furthermore, students will realize that we are all sometimes victims of prejudice and stereotypes and will express their personal opinion about the level of female underpayment in sports.

Ultimate frisbee game
Frisbee is played with seven players on each side. The team must be composed of three players of one gender and four of the other (co-ed). Teamwork is absolutely essential in order to be successful. The group cohesiveness and unity as one team is what has put them ahead of the competition.

Learning outcome 2:
The Representation of Women's Sports in the Media

Students will become aware of a large disparity in the amount of TV program dedicated to male or female sports. Women’s sport is hugely under-represented in the media and young women don’t get to see the role models and possibilities for women’s sport.

Access to resources, structures and leadership

Students will understand the dominance of leading positions in sports by men, although it is often a matter of exclusively women's sport. Besides infrastructure, sports programmes for women and girls have shown to require organisational structure as well. Sports programmes that assure women and girls active board membership in leading positions, equity, financial means, participation in decision-making and strategic planning are likely to be more successful in producing lasting change in the self-perception and self-confidence of female participants in such programmes. The representation of women in management and professional bodies, as well as on the management and professional functions of sports in Croatia, is less than 20%, as recommended by the International Olympic Committee as a minimum.

Implementation idea/activity/example: In- class debate

Students will discuss the allegations that the representation of male sport on TV programs is justified/unjustified because male sport is more attractive. In-class debate is a method perfectly suitable for teaching problematic topics in sports that have pro et contra argumentation on equal bases.

Learning outcome 3: to discuss and understand possible causes of gender inequality in sports

Students will find out in which areas possible progress can be made in creating equality between men and women The causes of gender inequality in sports are multi-layered, and many of them have their roots in the position, status and role of women in general in society. Some of the possible causes of the unequal position of women in sports which have not yet appeared in public discussions are:

1. Sports cannot be seen partially, outside the context of society. Society maps its patterns of behavior, culture, customs and tradition to all areas of life and sports. Sport is, with all the virtues it attracts (respect for the rival, modesty in victory ...) at its core, a competition (proofing our supremacy over the rival). The founder of the Olympic Movement, Pierre de Coubertin, encouraged by the French-Prussian War, expressed the wish that young people compete in sports grounds, not in the battlefield. Domination and competition, by nature, are more characteristic of male habit (this argument can be further argued during the project)

2. Since when sport as a game has ceased to be a goal for itself, and the economy has taken on a leading role, sport has taken on the economic canon of behaviour based on supply and demand. Significant role played by the fact that more and more people are engaged in sports. Sports disciplines that have a greater public interest also generate higher profits. The number of audiences on sports events is largely (or indirectly over the media) dictated the level of athletes' earnings and media coverage.

3. Professional engagement with some activity and desire for excellence requires a great deal of renunciation. Unlike other activities (science, art, etc.), the sport demands great mental and physical effort. Women in sport are under greater pressure from family obligations than male athletes. Due to pregnancy and parenthood, women are discouraged from sports fields and intense training for a longer period of time.

Article 1. of the Croatian Sport Law prescribes that sport must be equally accessible to all regardless of age, race, gender, sexual orientation, religion, nationality, social status, political or other belief. The same applies to the Olympic Charter, and in 2007 the European Commission launched a "White Paper on Sport", which contains proposals for future European Community activity in the field of sport. In a question about participating in sport, gender inequality is not so noticeable. However, when it comes to complementary activities within organizations without which modern, economically oriented sport is unimaginable, sexual inequality becomes apparent.

• Status and training conditions

Club status, conditions for preparation, training, and evaluation of results are uneven. The curriculum "The ethics in sport" in its 3. modules should raise awareness of the role of women in sport, stimulate the system of women's research in sport, particularly in terms of health, sociological, educational, economic and social attitudes, encourage inclusion of women in decision-making processes, dealing with these issues and other important issues of women's activity in sports.

• Equal Educational Access to Girls and Boys in Physical and Health Education

Teachers should pay attention to the following aspects of teaching:
• The activity must be the same for girls and boys.
• Girls and boys should be equally praised of their good performance and proven effort
• Give the same amount of feedback to girls and boys
• Express equal expectations of both girls and boys
• Girls and boys should have same chance to demonstrate elements
• Always intervene when boys or girls exhibit negative sexual stereotypes
• Use strategies and teaching styles that do not support sexual bias

• More emphasize the value of exercise for girls

In a report entitled “Her Life Depends On It” released in 2004, researchers conducted a comprehensive review of existing literature on the relationship between physical activity and girls’ health (Sabo, Miller, Melnick, & Heywood, 2004). They concluded that “the current state of knowledge on the relationship of physical activity to the health and social needs of American girls warrants the serious attention of public health officials, educators and sport leaders” (p. 2) A compilation of research findings indicate that girls face what the authors describe as a “daunting array” of health risks in their youth and later life that can be reduced through physical activity and sport participation.

• Curricula and Programs

There is a need to put more choices of girls' sports in the school curriculum of physical and health education. Girls should not only choose between dance and gymnastics while boys are doing outdoor sports. Dance, gym, basketball and football should be options for all genders. Girls have the ability to be excellent in any sport and should encourage them to do so.  

Possible additional learning outcomes  The historical context of fighting for women’s rights, the public opinion on gender equality, understanding the notion of tolerance, manipulation, censorship, propaganda and prejudice. 
How to learn and work with this module –specific instructions that teachers and students may require and which relate to the whole module, including specific references to the cross-curricular approach: 

• Subject that are associated with this curriculum are catechism, ethics, philosophy, history, physical education, literature, biology, geography. It is crucial to encourage cooperation among students with the aim of recognizing wealth in diversity, but also in relation to diversity. It is also crucial that students realize that a person can build a quality only in communion with another and different. Students should explain what kind of behavior will build and what kind of behavior will disrupt interpersonal communion.

• physical education, ethics, biology, philosophy, sociology, psychology, marketing, didactics, religion

School subjects related to the modules: Ethics, Philosophy, PE, catechism, History, Biology, Chemistry, etc. The key educational content of the relationship between genders is to create a system of values regarding relationships between genders and to encourage gender equality.  

Key educational content / subject areas associated with the modules: 

Students need to learn that both sexes have their own distinctiveness and quality that needs to be equally valued, appreciated and accepted. Children at the earliest age must adopt ethical and moral standards based on the equality of every man regardless of ethical, racial, sexual, age or religious affiliation.

Teachers should plan and program their teaching according to didactic principles: abstraction, activity and development, systematicity and procedurality, differentiation and integration, appropriation and effort, individualization and socialization and rationalization and economics This module should be dealt by educating from the earliest age in kindergartens, schools and rural areas. First symptoms of inequality appear at very young age in conservative areas where girls are given specific roles.

To encourage equality by educating and stimulate the areas to create equality using different measures (obligatory female clubs, specific female quota etc.)  

Further details of the key educational content that will be covered and that contribute to the delivery of the modules, including  
(i) Brief reference to the most effective methods or modes of learning: 

• The most effective methods are: Socratic dialogue, In-class debate, Fishbowl exercise, Focus group

• In organizational forms, put emphasis on mixed groups in which both girls and boys will have equal tasks.  

iii) Brief reference to the modes of assessing secondary school students (in relation to the learning outcomes): 

Informal and individualized assessment methods such as:
• anecdotal record,
• rating scales for behavior,
• event sampling,
• self-reflection,
• sports diary,
• probing in discussion.

Numerical assessment of oral and written knowledge examination. Critical evaluation of engagement, presentation, group work and field teaching. Evaluating the level of achievement of the outcomes can be underpinned by the educational task Transparent, public and continued following, assessing by the given elements according to the expected outcomes. A) Numeral assessing (giving points, written and oral exams) and B) Criterial assessing (classification, group work (presentations, public appearances and field work))  

(iii) Bibliography/resources: 

Books/papers:

1. Ellen J. Staurowsky, Nancy Hogshead-Makar, Mary Jo Kane, Emily Wughalter, Athena Yiamouyiannis and Phyllis K. Lerner., Gender equity in phisical education and atletics

2. Croatian Ministry of Science, Education and Sports., Law on Sports,2015

3. International Olympic Committee., Olympic Charter

4. European Commission., The White Book on Sport., Brussels, 2007

5. Second Vatican Council: Documents

6. United Nations, Division for the Advancement of Women Department of Economic and Social Affairs., Women, gender equality and sport

7. Clotilde Talleu: Gender Equality in Sports, 2011, Council of Europe European Institute for Gender Equality: Gender Equality in Sport

8. European Commission., (2014) Gender Equality in Sport: Proposed Strategic Measure 2014-2020.  

Title of the module: 

Racism in Sport  

Module objective(s):  The objective of the module is to introduce the notion of racism especially in its relevance and consequences in sport, raising students' awareness of what racial discrimination is. The aim is to deal with sport as a positive symbol for social acceptance conveying the image of multi-ethnic teams representing one nation and competing for a common goal.
Other objectives include how to make students aware of the problems related to racial discrimination and how to raise the students’ awareness that diversity is not something to be afraid of. The ambition is to transform students from listeners (active) into thoughtful subjects who question themselves on the present, reflecting on events of a recent past. The issue to be addressed in addition to being particularly current, also lends itself to an interdisciplinary approach.  
Key learning outcomes/learning challenges/learning problems: 

Learning outcome 1: Gained awareness about the manifestations of racism in sport

By the end of the module students should be able to:
• Define and understand the term racism and identify how racism is manifested in different forms using examples from sport
• Examine their own attitudes towards racism

In order to stimulate inquisitiveness about the topic, in the classroom the students can begin by listening to some musical pieces like Peter Gabriel "Biko", etc., or by watching the videos of sport champions that have been icons in the fight against racism and influenced people deeply, e.g. Michael Jordan (he fought against racism) and Jesse Owens (1936 Olympics). What can be relevant are also videoclips or study of some cases of football matches that seems to be one of representing stages of violent racism against blacks, racism with a political background, racism within the nation between north and south, racism with a religious background (that is racist behaviour, attitudes or conditions being exhibited by competitors, spectators, organizers of the competition or the rules of the game themselves). Students themselves can be prompted to come up with a many possible manifestations or racism as they can with real or imagined examples and you can discuss these with them. All these forms of racism are manifested in stadiums and in sports competitions, and therefore the reference goes to the phenomenon of the ultra-, the extreme xenophobic right that has in its stadium curves its strongholds through the exposure of swastikas and Celtic crosses, monkey chanting and throwing bananas onto the pitch, etc.

Since sport is in its essence a fair and playful competition in which the winner wins, the competition itself should be seen as constituting personal improvement either when it is an individual sport (athletics, etc.) or it is a team game, and the attitude of the winner that overemphasized the domination of the winning does not belong to the sport. The attitudes of revenge in winning or haughty superiority in the winner can originate repulsion and violence because it gives the sport a dimension that it does not have. The sport does not consider the race or the sex of the participants it exalts the same skills giving everyone equal opportunity to express themselves in the competition. It is an important vehicle for integration, respect and solidarity among all participants and spectators. Again, you can discuss with students how all these phenomena are related to racism.

In order to raise awareness about the importance of fighting against racial discrimination it is of great value to include students’ own experience, so that to be able to transfer their values in sport from classroom to the school life and to the social life. The students will be invited to present the results of their research into forms of racism and the strategies used. It is expected not only that they have managed to identify the connection between musical pieces, sports figures and acts of violence that take place in the stadiums, but also that they have deepened the understanding of some of the figures or characters, leaders of civil rights movements, symbols of the struggle against racism, e.g. Nelson Mandela and Martin Luther King and moreover especially that they can refer to their concrete experience and can make the fight against racial discrimination part of their everyday life.

Learning outcome 2: Overcoming racism

By the end of the module students should be able to:
• Explain the consequences of prejudice and discrimination
• Identify ways in which attitudes can be challenged and changed
• Appreciate diversity as a precious resource which allows students to widen their minds and broaden their horizons.

The teacher begins the activity with students by providing them two pieces, in which there are two antithetical positions on the theme of racism. Suggestion: the first text is a fragment by Abram Lincoln, in which he opposes slavery, the second is the position of T. W. Hoit in support of the superiority of the white race. The students then, divided into groups, are to be invited to reflect on one of them and each group will have to produce a document in which the key points emerge, the arguments supporting theses of Lincoln or Hoit. At the end they will be called to express their own arguments in a joint debate.

This first part of the activity can be supplemented by the second part, in which the teachers of physical education divide students into groups in which are students of different nationalities, ethnic backgrounds, traditions, etc., and ask them to first remember or research for some games form the past form their traditions and then decide new rules for sport games of the past. First, they need to explore and present sports games or games including physical activity form their traditions that were played by children in the past. All together can then try these games out and have fun. Next, the students should be invited to compare some games which are part of their own national/ethnic background and write down new ones or supplement old games with new aspects or new rules. Students should be free to work as they wish. In this way they will combine critical and creative thinking with ethical education. They will have the possibility to improve their own ideas and set their own rules. These “new” games will be played by them and be part of sport activities of the entire school on special occasion or when schedule allows.  

Possible additional learning outcomes 

Some additional learning outcome of the module will be that students will be able to:

• Understand, reflect, argue and analyse the interrelation between facts of sport and demographic, social and economic phenomena of national, European and global scope.
• Create messages and positive values in defence of human rights.
• Conform/confront the events form the past with personal experience.
• Express critical motivated judgments.
• Tackle and compare different points of view.
• Involve interdisciplinary activities like writing texts of various kinds: argumentative, reflective, poetic, expositive, multimedia, etc.
• experience to be citizens of the world: aware, autonomous, responsible and critical, who know how to learn to live in harmony with others, respecting people and rules, for the benefit of themselves and the whole community. Citizens who, through the development of correct, responsible, tolerant and supportive attitudes, fight any form of racism that is more or less subtle, based on prejudices, which discriminates those who are "different", preventing from feeling part of society and fully realizing their personal and citizen needs.  

How to learn and work with this module –specific instructions that teachers and students may require and which relate to the whole module, including specific references to the cross-curricular approach: 

The topic of racism (in sports) can be addressed using the cross-curricular approach through different school subjects interconnecting the analysis and understanding of e.g. selected articles of the Declaration of Human Rights, concerning fundamental freedoms and the reading and reflection of expert comments and narrative texts related to sport and to the most varied experiences, (life stories, marginalization, of child exploitation, of racial prejudices), through history, and many other domains.

The competences needed for overcoming racism are related and are part of active citizenship such as the need to protect human rights and to take on significant and socially recognized tasks of personal service: towards the elderly, the disabled, the sick, the needy in general. Through the knowledge of the rights and duties of the citizen, teachers are also able to promote the awareness that only by treating others with dignity each one can gain respect for oneself.

Students are thus provided with an opportunity to learn to reflect on their behaviours, to observe reality from different points of view, which allow to consider and respect multiple visions, in an intercultural approach from near too far, when tackling the issue of racism in cross-curricular manner.

In particular, the learning process should be responsive to the individual needs of the learners, their development and the need to train students who are aware of the great challenges that (multi-ethnic society and globalization) in our time are facing and the need to strengthen the knowledge of the European identity from a perspective of opening to the other, of mutual respect and revision of our lifestyles. The lessons also aim to start promoting the social and civic competences foreseen at the end of the students’ education path: full respect for human rights, including that of equality as a basis for democracy, awareness and understanding of the differences between systems of values of different religious or ethnic groups that are the basis for a positive attitude. This means manifesting both a sense of belonging to the place where one lives, to one's own country, to the European Union and to Europe in general and to the world, and the willingness to participate in the democratic process. It also includes the demonstration of a sense of responsibility as well as understanding and respect for democratic principles; constructive participation also involves civil activities, support for social diversity, cohesion and sustainable development, and a willingness to respect the values and privacy of others.

When cross-curricular does happen, it can positively change the learning process: “Two things happen. First, young people are encouraged to integrate learning experiences into their schemes of meaning so as to broaden and deepen their understanding of themselves and their world. Second, they are engaged in seeking, acquiring, and using knowledge in an organic – not an artificial – way.” (Beane, 1995)  

Key educational content / subject areas associated with the module: 

• (Language/Foreign languages) stories of sport/racial prejudices and reflection on them.

• (Economy & Laws) the rights of children, of women, the elderly, the disabled, etc.

• (History) the different forms of racism in history, modern slavery, etc.

• (Civic Education) the fundamental principles of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights.

• (Civic Education) identifying the role of the active citizens in the democratic life of the state, non-governmental organizations, United Nations Organization.

• (Sports education) forms of racism in sports, UEFA campaigns against racism, measures against racism etc.

• (all subjects) stories of child exploitation, marginalization, racial prejudices and reflection about them.

• (all subjects) use of familiar examples and models of protection and defence of human rights: non-governmental organizations, United Nations Organization, etc.  

Further details of the key educational content that will be covered and that contribute to the delivery of the module, including  
(i) Brief reference to the most effective methods or modes of learning: 

• role-playing

• active learning

• discussion group

• learning through actions, learning by doing

• cooperative learning

• peer learning 

(ii) Brief reference to the modes of assessing secondary school students (in relation to the learning outcomes): 

• self- reflection

• self-recording

• event sampling

• probing in discussion  

(iii) Bibliography/resources: 

Books/papers:

• Beane, J. A. (Ed.). (1995). Toward a coherent curriculum. Alexandria: ASCD.

Videos/web links:
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Racism
https://www.researchgate.net/publication/242153190_Sport_ethics_and_philosophy_context_history_prospects
http://www.pned.pt/media/31476/Ethics-in-Sport-Guidelines-for-Coaches.pdf
http://isca-web.org/files/CoE%20documents/Sport%20Code%20of%20Ethics%20by%20Council%20of%20Europe.pdf
http://portal.unesco.org/education/en/ev.php-URL_ID=2223&URL_DO=DO_TOPIC&URL_SECTION=201.html
https://ethics.org.au/why-were-here/what-is-ethics/
http://www.timetoast.com/timelines/football-racism-row-how-it-unfolded